“Rosh Chodesh” {ראש חודש} is Hebrew for “the beginning of the month” and it literally means “the head of the month.” Rosh Chodesh is signified by the sighting of the new moon (the first sliver of the moon).

While Rosh Chodesh is not a moed (appointed time) it is a time that is to be recognized and celebrated.  In Numbers 10:10 we find instructions to blow the shofar, offer offerings and sacrifices as a reminder the G-d is our L-RD and G-d.  In Psalms 81:3 we also see reference to blowing the shofar on the day of the new moon.  

Rosh Chodesh traditions vary across the spectrum of Judaism.  Traditions range from gatherings to read from the Torah to festive meals to inspirational readings and singing.  Observing Rosh Chodesh also helps us to recognize the beginning of the new lunar month hence it is customary to say tov chodesh, good month.